UX Follows a User-Centred Design (UCD) Process

In a nutshell, the UCD process focuses around:

  • user-research (and regular research)
  • sketching ideas addressing users’ needs that were learned in the first step
  • prototyping the most promising of the last step’s ideas (to be evaluated through more user-research)
  • iterate through testing and repeating steps as required

Web Accessibility, Usability and the User-Centred Design Process

Usability issues impact all users equally, regardless of ability; that is, a person with a disability is not disadvantaged to a greater extent by usability issues than a person without a disability. Usability is about analyzing patterns and processes of using a (digital) product.

Accessibility issues decrease access to a product for people with disabilities. When a person with a disability is at a disadvantage relative to a person without a disability, it is an accessibility issue. (It looks at how an individual needs to access digital content…how the content needs to be presented, such as through visual, audio, and/or tactile form.)

Where do we start?

Start by evaluating the current online design/system. This is a heuristic review of the current design that looks at usability principles and accessibility standards.

The complete heuristic review should include a:

  • web usability review; and,
  • a web accessibility evaluation.

(Ideally, a heuristic review will become one step…accessibility will be understood as being an essential part to usability.)

“No. I don’t think the Empire had Wookiees in mind when they designed it, Chewie.”
Hans Solo to Chewbacca about the Tydirium imperial shuttle when they’re trying to figure out how to fly it

What is Web Accessibility?

The World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) defines web accessibility as people with disabilities can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web, and that they can contribute to the Web.

Web accessibility is the practice of removing barriers and maintaining equal access to the interaction and content of a website for people with a diverse range of abilities. It is Tim Berners-Lee (1997), W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web, who stated that “the power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.”

Making the web more accessible is gaining world-wide momentum in web design and development. Standards create a conceptual framework for an equal digital environment. Policies and practices are what bring standards to life by integrating them into systems and processes. The W3C WAI Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 are the current standard that most of the world follows.

Web accessibility focuses on making websites accessible to people of all different abilities. It is based on the theoretical understanding that if a website is designed and developed using current worldwide standards and guidelines, then the information of the site can be accessed by all equally. But there is more to accessibility than strict conformance to standards.


Introduction to Web Accessibility. (2005, February 1). W3C Web Accessibility Initiative. Retrieved March 8, 2014, from http://www.w3.org/WAI/intro/accessibility.php

Creating an Inclusive Web Framework (research project abstract)

This study delves into existing literature regarding web accessibility and usability. It looks into the relationship between accessibility and usability to highlight how both practices complement each other and, when used together, will create a better, and accessible, user experience. This research study employed a survey to understand how web designers, developers and professionals (the participants) perceived the relationship between web accessibility and usability. This survey also presented a table of combined heuristics and questioned whether the participants considered an integrated view using combined web accessibility guidelines and usability heuristics to be a good segue into a more comprehensive, and inclusive, web design framework. This research study is working towards an inclusive web framework that focuses around the user experience of users of all abilities with regard to the perspectives of web designers, developers and professionals in its’ development.

Contact me if you’re interested in reading this paper.

(Note: This is an older post from May 2014 that I’m posting again.)